When understaffed or in times of crises, national statistical offices may need other sources of information. Big data or social media analyses can be used to detect household or gender-based violence, or to further identify women who hold executive roles in employment. For example, analyzing tweets and the language that surround tweets has been used to assess family violence during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Additionally, data on professional leadership and representation of women in the labor force can be collected from professional social media platforms such as LinkedIn. However, many big data solutions depend on “digital exhaust”— the data collected from cell phones, credit card transactions, and Internet use. Therefore, care must be taken to avoid biased samples that leave out poor people, women, and other vulnerable groups.