Undertaking hybrid censuses
For countries that do not have the capacity to conduct full censuses, a hybrid census could be an alternative. In the case of Afghanistan, the last national population census in Afghanistan was conducted in 1979. Due to security concerns, a hybrid census was conducted in 2015 which used existing data, high-resolution satellite imagery, and computer-vision-based approaches to estimate populations in areas where no direct data are available. These include estimates by age and sex.